N2 Lewis Structure (5 steps) with Synthesis and Applications: Amazing Guide


A diatomic molecule, nitrogen gas, is represented by the chemical formula N2. It makes up around 78% of the volume of the Earth’s atmosphere, making it one of the most prevalent and necessary gases on the planet. In the N2 Lewis structure, two nitrogen atoms are firmly bound to one another by three covalent bonds. Since nitrogen gas has no color or smell, it is invisible to us.

Nitrogen gas is an inert gas and because of this feature, it can be used to keep packaged foods fresh, stop oxidation in industrial operations, and fill the air in many production situations. Additionally, it is a crucial part of amino acids, which serve as the foundation for proteins. In the structure of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), which are necessary for genetic information, it is also a crucial component. As a result, nitrogen is essential for all living things.

Physical and Chemical properties:

The physical characteristics of N2 make it distinct and necessary. In order for it to function and be reactive, it possesses a number of chemical characteristics.

  1. Molecular Weight: N2 is lighter than many other common gases due to its molecular weight of about 28 g/mol.
  2. Density: At STP, nitrogen gas has a density of around 1.25 g/L.
  3. Boiling Point: The temperature at which nitrogen gas boils is exceptionally low, around -196 oC. It is useful for cryogenic applications and as a coolant because of its low boiling point.
  4. Melting Point: At a temperature of -210 oC, nitrogen gas turns into nitrogen ice.
  5. Solubility: Water hardly ever dissolves nitrogen gas. Nitrogen bubbles develop in the bloodstream when scuba divers ascend too quickly, a condition known as “the bends,” and this reduced solubility is one of the causes.
  6. Triple Point: Nitrogen gas has a special triple point that is located at -210.01 oC and 12.52 kPa of pressure. Nitrogen is now capable of being in all three states simultaneously: solid, liquid, and gas.
  7. Compressibility: Nitrogen gas is very compressible, just like other gases. It can liquefy when put under intense pressure.
  8. Stability: N2 has extraordinary stability due to the triple covalent bond formed by the two nitrogen atoms. Without the use of significant energy, such as high temperatures and pressures, it is difficult to start chemical reactions using nitrogen gas.
  9. Limited Reactivity: Nitrogen gas is normally inert, but it is capable of reacting in certain circumstances. For instance, it is possible to get nitrogen to combine with specific metals (such as lithium or magnesium) to create nitrides. However, high temperatures are frequently needed for these reactions.
  10. Combustion: Although nitrogen gas does not burn on its own, it can participate in certain combustion processes. Nitrogen oxides (NOx), which contribute to air pollution, can be created when ambient nitrogen reacts with oxygen at high temperatures, as seen in industrial operations or combustion engines.
  11. Explosive Properties: Nitrogen compounds that include nitrogen atoms, like nitroglycerin and TNT, are well known for their explosive qualities. When these substances break down, a significant quantity of energy is released, primarily as nitrogen gas.
  12. Space Reactivity: Nitrogen can interact with other substances and elements in space, where the environment is very different from that on Earth. For instance, nitrogen molecules like ammonia and hydrazine have been found in the atmospheres of some planets and moons.
  13. Nitrification and Denitrification: Nitrogen is an important element in many biological processes. Through a process known as nitrogen fixation, bacteria can turn atmospheric nitrogen gas into ammonia (NH3) as part of the nitrogen cycle. Then, by nitrification, ammonia can be further transformed into nitrites (NO2) and nitrates (NO3). These substances are vital plant nutrients. The process by which nitrates are transformed back into atmospheric nitrogen gas, on the other hand, is known as denitrification.

Synthetic methods of N2:

Since it makes up around 78% of the air on Earth, nitrogen gas is mostly acquired from the atmosphere. Although they are more frequently utilized in industrial settings and less widespread than merely isolating nitrogen from air, various synthetic processes do exist for creating nitrogen gas. Here are a few elaborate synthetic techniques:

  1. Fractional Distillation of Liquid Air:

This is the most typical way to get nitrogen gas. By fractionally distilling liquid air, nitrogen is separated from other elements of air based on differences in their boiling points.

First, ambient air is compressed and cooled to create liquid air. Fractional distillation takes place in a column with many trays or packing material while the liquid air gently warms up and evaporates. The first gas to evaporate and accumulate at the top of the column is nitrogen, which has a boiling point of roughly -196°C.

  1. Cryogenic Distillation:

This is a more sophisticated method of fractional distillation that separates nitrogen from air by using very low temperatures. Extremely low temperatures, usually below the boiling point of nitrogen, are used to chill liquid air. Then, as they vaporize at various temperatures, with nitrogen being the first to do so, the various parts of air (nitrogen, oxygen, argon, etc.) are separated.

  1. Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA):

PSA is a method that uses adsorbents to selectively absorb gases under pressure and subsequently release them under decreased pressure. Adsorbents are often zeolites or molecular sieves. A bed of adsorbent material is passed through as air is squeezed. While nitrogen flows through, oxygen and other gases are absorbed. When the adsorbent bed is full, the pressure is lowered, the adsorbed gases are discharged, and high-purity nitrogen is left behind.

  1. Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate:

Some chemical processes include the release of nitrogen gas through the reactivity of molecules containing nitrogen. Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) can break down to produce nitrogen gas, water, and other byproducts. In industrial contexts, this reaction is occasionally employed.

N2 lewis structure:

Each N in the N2 Lewis structure stands for a nitrogen atom. Three pairs of electrons are shared according to the triple bond between the two nitrogen atoms. One sigma bond and two pi bonds make up the triple bond. If lone pairs of electrons existed, they would be located surrounding each nitrogen atom; nevertheless, nitrogen gas lacks any lone pairs.

Diatomic nitrogen gas is characterized by a triple covalent link between the two nitrogen atoms, which is represented by this Lewis structure. A stable diatomic molecule is produced when three electrons from each nitrogen atom combine to create the sigma and pi bonds.

Steps involved in N2 lewis structure:

  1. Count the Valance Electrons:

The amount of valance electrons in the N2 molecule must first be determined. In N2 lewis structure, there are two nitrogen atoms, each of which contributes five valence electrons.

  1. Determine the Central Atom:

It makes no difference which nitrogen atom you choose as the center atom because both nitrogen atoms in N2 lewis structure are the same. Let’s choose the nitrogen atom on the left to serve as the example’s core atom.

  1. Distribute Electrons:

To depict the sharing of two electrons, place the two nitrogen atoms side by side and connect them with a single bond (a single line). A sigma bond will make up this single bond. You must distribute 10 valence electrons. Start by surrounding each nitrogen atom with two lone pairs of electrons. They both have full octets since each nitrogen atom now has a total of 8 electrons (2 lone pairs + 2 in the bond).

4. Move Electrons:

Move the outer electrons toward the inside and make a triple bond between them. Through this method, both the nitrogen atoms become stable in N2 lewis structure.

  1. Check for Remaining Electrons:

Check to see if we still have any electrons after spreading the 10 valence electrons in the N2 lewis structure . You should have none in this situation.

The following is N2 Lewis structure:

N ≡ N

Each N in this structure stands for an atom of nitrogen. Three pairs of electrons are shared according to the triple bond between the two nitrogen atoms. One sigma bond and two pi bonds make up the triple bond.

With a triple covalent connection forming between the two nitrogen atoms, this Lewis structure appropriately depicts the bonding in diatomic nitrogen gas.


Due to nitrogen gas unique characteristics and inert nature, it is used in a wide variety of sectors. Here are some specific uses for nitrogen gas:

  1. The pharmaceutical industry: During production, storage, and transportation, nitrogen is used to blanket and protect delicate pharmaceutical items against oxidative destruction.
  2. Electronics Manufacturing: To provide inert atmospheres for soldering and welding procedures and avoid oxidation of fragile electronic components, nitrogen is employed in the electronics manufacturing industry.
  3. Food packing and preservation: In food packing containers, nitrogen is used to replace oxygen. This contributes to extending the shelf life of packaged items, including almonds, coffee, and potato chips.
  4. Oil and Gas Sector: Nitrogen is used in the oil and gas sector to enhance oil recovery through injection, pressure test pipelines and equipment, and purge storage tanks and pipelines of combustible gases.
  5. Metallurgy: Nitrogen is utilized in the metallurgical industry to degas molten metals like steel. It assists in purging impurities and enhances the metal’s mechanical qualities.
  6. Chemical Industry: To avoid interactions with oxygen and moisture, nitrogen is employed as an inert gas in many chemical processes. In reactors and storage tanks, it is also utilized for blanketing and purging.
  7. Environmental Testing: Environmental testing, such as recreating extremely high temperatures and pressures within testing chambers, uses nitrogen.
  8. Automotive Tire Inflation: Nitrogen is utilized to fill the tires of automobiles because it has a lower permeability than oxygen. Improved fuel economy and more consistent tire pressure result from this.
  9. Fire Suppression Systems: Nitrogen is used in fire suppression systems to replace oxygen in order to put out fires in enclosed areas without harming equipment or the environment.
  10. Aerospace Industry: Fuel tanks and hydraulic systems in aircraft and spacecraft employ nitrogen to create an inert environment. It reduces the possibility of explosions and fire.
  11. Laboratory and Scientific Research: In laboratories, nitrogen gas is utilized for a variety of tasks, such as sample preservation, gas chromatography, and as a carrier gas for analytical instruments.
  12. Medical Applications: In cryotherapy, liquid nitrogen is used to freeze skin lesions, preserve biological samples, and perform other medical treatments.
  13. Blanketing and inerting: Nitrogen is utilized in a variety of industries for blanketing and inerting tasks to stop the development of explosive atmospheres and safeguard tools and workers.
  14. Welding and Metal Processing: In welding procedures, notably in the welding of stainless steel and aluminum, nitrogen is employed as a shielding gas. It results in cleaner welds and helps prevent oxidation.
  15. Cryogenics: Nitrogen is a cryogenic coolant that is used to freeze and preserve biological materials like sperm, eggs, and tissues.

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